Nature and genes
Knowledge is the perception
of the agreement or disagreement of two ideas.
Davenport and Prusak define
knowledge as, "a fluid mix of framed experience, contextual information,
values and expert insight that provides a framework
for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information." Notice
that there are two parts to this definition:
- First, there is content:
"a fluid mix of framed experience, contextual information, values
and expert insight." This includes a number of things that we have
within us, such as experiences, beliefs,
values, how we feel, motivation,
- The second part defines
the function or purpose of knowledge, "that provides a framework
for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information."
Knowledge is information
that changes something or somebody; either by becoming grounds for
actions, or by making an individual (or an institution) capable of
different or more effective action.
The function has two main
parts. First, it serves as a background for the assessment of signals,
which in turn, allows the performance of actions. As to the first
part, they write, "To determine whether a signal is informative, an
observer has to "attach meaning to it," e.g., to perceive and interpret
it. Once perceived and interpreted the observer may evaluate whether
the signal is informative and whether action is required."
And secondly, "The role of knowledge in generating appropriate actions
is that it serves as a background for articulating possible courses
of action (articulation), for judging whether courses of action will
yield the intended result and for using this judgement in selecting
among them (selection), for deciding how actions should be implemented
and for actually implementing actions (implementation)."
Types of Knowledge
Can be articulated into formal language, including grammatical statements
(words and numbers), mathematical expressions, specifications, manuals,
etc. Explicit knowledge can be readily transmitted others. Also, it
can easily be processed by a computer, transmitted electronically, or
stored in databases.
Personal knowledge embedded in individual experience and involves intangible
factors, such as personal beliefs, perspective, and the value system.
Tacit knowledge is hard to articulate with formal language (hard, but
not impossible). It contains subjective insights, intuitions, and hunches.
Before tacit knowledge can be communicated, it must be converted into
words, models, or numbers that can be understand. In addition, there
are two dimensions to tacit knowledge:
- Technical Dimension
(procedural): This encompasses the kind of informal and skills
often captured in the term know-how. For example, a craftsperson
develops a wealth of expertise after years of experience. But a
craftsperson often has difficulty articulating the technical or
scientific principles of his or her craft. Highly subjective and
personal insights, intuitions, hunches and inspirations derived
from bodily experience fall into this dimension.
- Cognitive Dimension:
This consists of beliefs, perceptions, ideals, values, emotions
and mental models so ingrained in us that we take them for granted.
Though they cannot be articulated very easily, this dimension of
tacit knowledge shapes the way we perceive the world around us.
four modes of knowledge creation or conversion that
are derived from the two kinds of knowledge:
|From tacit knowledge
Artifacts derived from knowledge
creation are facts, concepts, processes, procedures, and principles.
These, in turn, are used to help create knowledge in others.
from tacit to tacit. Sharing experiences to create tacit knowledge,
such as shared mental models and technical skills. This also includes
observation, imitation, and practice. However, "experience" is the
key, which his why the mere "transfer of information" often makes
little sense to the receiver.
from explicit to tacit. Embodying explicit knowledge into tacit
knowledge. Closely related to "learning by doing." Normally, knowledge
is verbalized or diagrammed into documents or oral stories.
from tacit to explicit. The quintessential process of articulating
tacit knowledge into explicit concepts through metaphors, analogies,
concepts, hypothesis, or models. Note that when we conceptualize
an image, we express its essence mostly in language.
from explicit to explicit. A process of systemizing concepts into
a knowledge system. Individuals exchange and combine knowledge through
media, such as documents, meetings, and conversations. Information
is reconfigured by such means as sorting, combining, and categorizing.
Formal education and many training programs work this way.